Business and property
Our subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates are involved in all aspects of upstream activities, including land tenure, entitlement to produced hydrocarbons, production rates, royalties, pricing, environmental protection, social impact, exports, taxes and foreign exchange.
The conditions of the leases, licences and contracts under which oil and gas interests are held vary from country to country. In almost all cases outside North America, legal agreements are generally granted by, or entered into with, a government, state-owned company, government-run oil and gas company or agency. The exploration risk usually rests with the independent oil and gas company. In North America, these agreements may also be with private parties that own mineral rights. Of these agreements, the following are most relevant to our interests:
- Licences (or concessions), which entitle the holder to explore for hydrocarbons and exploit any commercial discoveries. Under a licence, the holder bears the risk of exploration, development and production activities, and is responsible for financing these activities. In principle, the licence holder is entitled to the totality of production less any royalties in kind. The government, state-owned company or government-run oil and gas company may sometimes enter into a joint arrangement as a participant, sharing the rights and obligations of the licence but usually without sharing the exploration risk. In a few cases, the state-owned company, government-run oil and gas company or agency has an option to purchase a certain share of production.
- Lease agreements, which are typically used in North America and are usually governed by terms similar to licences. Participants may include governments or private entities. Royalties are either paid in cash or in kind.
- Production-sharing contracts (PSCs) entered into with a government, state-owned company or government-run oil and gas company. PSCs generally oblige the independent oil and gas company, as contractor, to provide all the financing and bear the risk of exploration, development and production activities in exchange for a share of the production. Usually, this share consists of a fixed or variable part that is reserved for the recovery of the contractor’s cost (cost oil). The remaining production is split with the government, state-owned company or government-run oil and gas company on a fixed or volume/revenue-dependent basis. In some cases, the government, state-owned company or government-run oil and gas company will participate in the rights and obligations of the contractor and will share in the costs of development and production. Such participation can be across the venture or on a field-by-field basis. Additionally, as the price of oil or gas increases above certain predetermined levels, the independent oil and gas company’s entitlement share of production normally decreases, and vice versa. Accordingly, its interest in a project may not be the same as its entitlement.
Shell and ExxonMobil are 50:50 shareholders of BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH & Co. KG (BEB) which owns interests in various concessions mainly in Lower Saxony. ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH has a service contract with BEB under which it provides operating services to BEB for most of the concessions.
Shell has a 39% interest in the Val d’Agri producing concession, operated by ENI S.p.A.
We also have a 25% interest in the Tempa Rossa producing concession, operated by TotalEnergies EP Italia S.p.A.
Shell and ExxonMobil are 50:50 shareholders in Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij B.V. (NAM). NAM holds a 60% interest in the onshore low-calorific Groningen gas field (the remaining 40% interest is held by EBN, a Dutch government entity), the Schoonebeek oil field and some 25 smaller hydrocarbon production licences.
Production from the Groningen field induces earthquakes which have led to damage claims, security concerns, a strengthening operation to make buildings earthquake resistant and calls from residents and local politicians to close the field.
Since 2013, the Dutch government has set the annual production and capacity target for the Groningen field which for the gas year 2022-2023 (ending October 1, 2023) was set at 2.8 billion cubic metres. For 2021-2022 the production level was set at 4.5 billion cubic metres.
In June 2018, NAM’s shareholders and the Dutch government signed a heads of agreement (HoA) to reduce and eventually stop production from the Groningen field, and to ensure the financial robustness of NAM to fulfil its obligations. Pursuant to this HoA no dividend is expected for 2022 as dividend payments can only be made if a solvency ratio of 25% is reached and maintained.
In September 2018, detailed agreements were signed to further implement the HoA. As part of these agreements, Shell has guaranteed 50% of NAM’s 60% share of earthquake-related costs for damage claims and the strengthening of buildings. Whilst the Dutch government has responsibility for issuing production instructions for annual Groningen production and has set up public entities for settling damage claims and strengthening buildings, NAM remains liable to pay for damage caused by earthquakes and strengthening required to comply with the safety norm. Under the terms of the HoA, it was agreed that the Dutch government would pass on to NAM costs insofar as the costs corresponded to NAM’s liability. In 2022, NAM started arbitrations with the Dutch government to have its financial liability determined for costs which the Dutch government compensated to claimants and subsequently charged to NAM.
In September 2019, the Dutch government announced that the reduction of Groningen production would be accelerated and that production would cease in 2022, eight years earlier than planned in the HoA. This has been revised to 2023 or 2024, provided that certain conditions are met, including the timely start-up of a new nitrogen plant, sufficient reduction in demand for low-cal gas, usage of NAM’s underground gas storages (UGS) in Grijpskerk and Norg, and sufficient supply of high-cal gas. Compensation payments are made by the government to NAM for the revised usage of the Norg UGS. Discussions continue between the Dutch government and NAM shareholders regarding the compensation payable by the Dutch government to NAM in order to give effect to the terms of the HoA.
The parliamentary enquiry into the production of gas from Groningen and the subsequent effects of the earthquakes moved into the public hearings phase in 2022 and the final report was published on February 24, 2023.
On October 26, 2021, NAM announced that it would split up its non-Groningen assets into several new legal entities, with the intent to divest those legal entities.
Shell is a partner in 20 production licences on the Norwegian continental shelf, and the operator of eight of these. We have interests in two gas-producing fields: Shell-operated Ormen Lange (Shell interest 17.8%) and Equinor-operated Troll (Shell interest 8.1%). In 2022, a plan for development and operation was submitted for government approval for the Equinor-operated gas discovery Irpa (Shell interest 10%), as a tie-back to the Aasta Hansteen field. We are also the operator of two fields which are being decommissioned: Knarr (which ceased production in 2022) and Gaupe. In addition, we are the technical service provider for the Gassco-operated Nyhamna processing plant.
Shell operates a number of interests on the UK continental shelf under 50:50 joint-venture agreements with Neo Energy and has a 50:50 joint venture agreement with ExxonMobil for the SEGAL gas transportation system; the Brent Field, which is being decommissioned; and other assets in the North Sea. Shell also has non-operated positions in the West of Shetland area, namely Clair (Shell interest 27.97%) and Schiehallion (Shell interest 44.89%), both operated by BP.
In May 2022, the UK’s Offshore Petroleum Regulator for Environment and Decommissioning (OPRED) approved the revised environmental statement for the Jackdaw gas field development and gave production consent in June 2022. In July, Greenpeace applied for a judicial review of the Regulator’s decision. The application has, at Greenpeace’s request, been put on hold pending the decision by the UK Supreme Court on another case which concerns similar legal issues, and which will likely be heard in the second half of 2023. If the hold on Greenpeace’s judicial review application is lifted, we currently believe there is a relatively low risk of disruption to the Jackdaw project, in terms of delays and/or changes to the project. The project is expected to come on stream in the mid-2020s.
In 2022, Shell drilled five exploration wells on the UK continental shelf.
From April 2022, Shell assumed the role of technical development lead for the CO2 capture, transportation and storage modules of the Acorn carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) and hydrogen project. Acorn is part of the Scottish Cluster, which continues to be the Track 1 reserve cluster in the UK government’s CCUS cluster sequencing process. This means that if another cluster selected as Track 1 is discontinued the Scottish Cluster may take its place.
In November 2022, Shell completed the acquisition of a 100% interest in Corallian Energy Limited. The interest comprises the P.2596 licence containing the Victory field gas discovery west of Shetland which is expected to be a subsea tie-back to existing infrastructure tied into the Shetland Gas Plant. Gas would be exported via existing pipelines to the North Sea Midstream Partners operated plant at St Fergus, helping to ensure longer-term gas supply for the UK.
Decommissioning of the Heather A platform and Curlew floating production, storage and offloading (FPSO) asset continued in 2022. Production from Brent Charlie ceased in the first quarter of 2021 and topsides preparations are ongoing in readiness for the lift, removal and recycling of the facilities. OPRED continues to assess the Brent Field decommissioning programme, which pertains to the Brent gravity-based substructures.
Rest of Europe
Shell also has interests in Albania.
Asia (including the Middle East and Russia)
Shell and the Brunei government are 50:50 shareholders in Brunei Shell Petroleum Company Sendirian Berhad (BSP). BSP has long-term onshore and offshore oil and gas concession rights and sells most of its gas production to Brunei LNG Sendirian Berhad, with the remainder sold in the domestic market. See “Integrated Gas”.
In addition to our interest in BSP, we have a non-operating interest in the offshore Block B concession (Shell interest 35%, operated by TotalEnergies), where gas and condensate are produced from the Maharaja Lela field.
We have a non-operating interest in a gas holding area for deep-water Block CA2 (Shell interest 12.5%, operated by Petronas), under a PSC.
We operate the deep-water Block CA1 (Shell interest 86.95%), in which the Jagus-East field is located, under a PSC. As referred to in the Malaysia section below, the Jagus-East field and the Geronggong field, held by BSP, form part of the unitised GKGJE field.
Shell has a 44% interest in the Basrah Gas Company, which gathers, treats and processes associated gas that was previously being flared from the Rumaila, West Qurna 1 and Zubair fields. The processed gas and associated products, such as condensate and LPG, are sold to the domestic market. Any surplus condensate and LPG is exported.
Shell is the joint operator with ENI S.p.A. of the onshore Karachaganak oil and condensate field (Shell interest 29.3%). The Karachaganak field is in north-west Kazakhstan and covers an area of more than 280 square kilometres.
We also have an interest in the North Caspian Sea Production Sharing Agreement (Shell interest 16.8%) which includes the Kashagan field in the Kazakh sector of the Caspian Sea. The North Caspian Operating Company is the operator. This shallow-water field covers an area of around 3,400 square kilometres.
We have a 7.4% interest in the Caspian Pipeline Consortium which owns and operates an oil pipeline running from the Caspian Sea to the Black Sea, across parts of Kazakhstan and Russia. We hold our share in the Caspian Pipeline Consortium via three legal entities, two of which are wholly owned by Shell, and the other is a joint venture with Rosneft (Shell interest 49%), Rosneft-Shell Caspian Ventures Ltd (Cyprus) (RSCV), which was formed in 1996 to primarily own and manage pipeline capacity rights. We continue to manage that part of our interest in CPC held through RSCV in full compliance with applicable laws.
Shell explores for and produces oil and gas off the coast of Sabah and Sarawak under 21 PSCs, in which our interests range from 20% to 92.5%.
- We operate two producing oil fields: (i) the Malikai deep-water field (Shell interest 35%), and (ii) the unitised GKGJE field consisting of the Malaysian Gumusut and Kakap fields and the Bruneian Geronggong and Jagus-East fields that straddle the Malaysia-Brunei border and have been made into a single unit. Shell’s interest in the unitised field is 37.89%. In June 2022, we took the final investment decision on the GKGJE Phase 4 oil development project. In July 2022, we achieved first oil for the Phase 3 development.
- In March 2022, we signed two new exploration PSCs for Block 2W and X (Shell interest 50% each).
- In our non-operated portfolio:
- We have a 21% interest in the Siakap North-Petai deep-water field and a 30% interest in the Kebabangan field.
- In October 2022, we signed a new exploration PSC for Block SB 2K (Shell interest 25.1%).
- In February 2023, we completed the farm-in to one exploration PSC for Block SB2V (Shell interest 40%).
- We are the operator of eight producing gas fields and one producing oil and gas field. Nearly all the gas produced offshore Sarawak is supplied to Malaysia LNG (MLNG) and to our gas-to-liquids plant in Bintulu. The fields are:
- gas fields F6, F23, E8, F13 East and F13 West under the MLNG PSC (Shell interest 40%);
- gas fields F14 and F28 under the SK308 PSC (Shell interest 50%);
- gas field Gorek under the SK408 PSC (Shell Interest 30%); and
- oil and gas field E6 under the SK308 PSC (Shell interest 50%).
See “Integrated Gas”.
- We are also the operator for Block SK318 PSC. This block contains the Timi field (Shell interest 75%) which is under development, and the Rosmari-Marjoram fields (Shell interest 80%). In September 2022, together with PETRONAS Carigali Sdn Bhd, we took the final investment decision to develop the Rosmari-Marjoram natural gas project. Situated around 220 kilometres off the coast of Bintulu, the project comprises a remotely operated offshore platform and onshore gas plant. Rosmari-Marjoram will mainly be powered by renewable energy from solar power offshore and hydroelectric power onshore.
- In November 2022, we progressed with the execution of the MLNG F22, F27, Selasih (FaS) project, which comprises a single well development in each of the F22, F27 and Selasih fields to be drilled from the wellhead platforms with tie-backs to the F23 hub.
- In March 2022, we signed one new exploration PSC for Block SK439 and SK440 (Shell interest 92.5%). In February 2023, we signed one new PSC for Block SK3B (Shell interest 45%).
- In our non-operated portfolio:
- First gas was achieved for SK320 (Shell interest 20%) in April 2022.
- We have a 30% interest in Jerun which is part of the Block SK408 PSC. Jerun is a gas development with an integrated central processing platform. Block SK408 also contains the producing non-Shell-operated Larak and Bakong fields.
- We also have a 40% interest in the amended 2011 Baram Delta enhanced oil recovery PSC and a 50% interest in the SK307 PSC. In December 2022, Shell signed an agreement to sell its non-operated interests in these two PSCs to Petroleum Sarawak Exploration and Production Sdn Bhd (PSEP), effective January 1, 2023. The sale is expected to be completed in early 2023, subject to completion of conditions which include, amongst others, regulatory approval.
Using renewables to produce gas in Malaysia
In 2022, we took the final investment decision to develop the Rosmari-Marjoram gas production project in Malaysia. The project will be mainly powered by renewable energy, using solar power for its remotely operated offshore platform and hydroelectric power for its onshore gas plant.
Rosmari-Marjoram is designed to produce 800 million standard cubic feet of gas per day and is expected to start production in 2026. The project will include one of the longest gas offshore pipelines in the world, stretching more than 200 kilometres from the field to the coast of Sarawak. Once production starts, the gas will be piped to the Malaysia liquefied natural gas (Malaysia LNG) complex.
Rosmari-Marjoram will help Shell deliver a reliable supply of gas and do this while reducing the emissions from our operations. This is in line with our Powering Progress energy transition strategy to become a net-zero business by 2050.
The project team has demonstrated ingenuity and applied a learner mindset to the design, evolving the project from a conventional offshore processing platform to a carbon-competitive onshore gas plant. Shell focuses on seeking the highest return from investments within the lowest possible carbon emissions budget.
Rosmari-Marjoram’s offshore platform will use power from 240 solar panels and the onshore plant is connected to the Sarawak grid system, which is supplied mainly by hydroelectric plants. Batteries and diesel generators will be held in reserve as back-up to ensure the safety of our operations.
Shell has a 34% interest in Petroleum Development Oman (PDO), which operates the Block 6 oil concession. Shell is entitled to 34% of oil produced from Block 6 through its interest in Private Oil Holdings Oman Ltd. The government of Oman has a 60% interest in PDO and the Block 6 oil concession through its 100% owned company, Energy Development Oman (EDO). PDO operates a concession area of about 90,000 square kilometres and has more than 200 producing oil fields.
We have a 50% interest in Block 42 under an Exploration and Production Sharing Agreement (EPSA) where Shell is the operator. The other 50% interest is held by the government through its 100% owned company, OQ. We have a 100% interest in Block 55 under an EPSA.
Shell announced in the first quarter of 2022 its intent to withdraw from its ventures in Russia with Gazprom and related entities. See Note 6, which is incorporated by reference into the Strategic Report, for the actions we have taken since these announcements and for the impact on the “Consolidated Financial Statements”.
Shell holds a 65% interest in Syria Shell Petroleum Development B.V. (SSPD), a joint venture between Shell and the China National Petroleum Corporation. SSPD holds a 31.25% interest in Al Furat Petroleum Company, a Syrian joint stock company, whose role was to perform petroleum operations. Shell also holds a 70% interest in two exploration licences via Shell South Syria Exploration B.V. In December 2011, in compliance with international sanctions on Syria, including European Council Decision 2011/782/CFSP, Shell suspended all exploration and production activities in Syria. SSPD continued to fulfil minimum contractual obligations towards the Syrian finance and labour ministries, in compliance with applicable trade control laws. In 2022, as part of the minimum contractual obligations, payments for taxes related to salary and social security amounted to $1,400.
Rest of Middle East and Asia
Shell also has interests in Kuwait and the United Arab Emirates.
On November 1, 2022, Shell Petroleum N.V. completed the sale of its 100% shareholding in Shell Philippines Exploration B.V. (SPEX) to Malampaya Energy XP Pte Ltd, a subsidiary of Prime Infrastructure Capital Inc (Prime Infra). SPEX owns a 45% operating interest and is operator in Service Contract 38, which includes the Malampaya gas field. The sale completion transferred ownership and control of SPEX to Prime Infra.
Shell operates a number of interests in onshore and offshore oil exploration and production assets in Nigeria.
The Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (SPDC) is the operator of the SPDC joint venture (SPDC JV, Shell interest 30%) which, after the handover of its operations in OML 11 in 2022, has 15 Niger Delta onshore oil mining leases (OMLs).
SPDC also has three shallow-water oil mining leases (OML 74, 77 and 79) and a 40% interest in the non-operated Sunlink joint venture which has one shallow-water lease (OML 144).
In 2021, we announced our intention to reduce our involvement in onshore oil production in Nigeria, in line with our Powering Progress strategy.
Our main offshore deep-water activities are carried out by Shell Nigeria Exploration and Production Company Limited (SNEPCo, Shell interest 100%). SNEPCo has interests in three deep-water blocks that are under PSC terms: the producing assets Bonga (OML 118) and Erha (OML 133), and the non-producing asset Bolia Chota (OML 135). SNEPCo operates OML 118 (Shell interest 55%), including the Bonga field FPSO vessel. We also operate OML 135, encompassing the Bolia and Doro fields (Shell interest 55%). We have a 43.8% non-operating interest in OML 133 (including the Erha FPSO).
In 2022, OML 118 and OML 133 were renewed for 20 years following settlement of disputes regarding historic allocation of production between Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) and the parties to the PSCs.
Authorities are investigating our involvement in Nigerian oil Block OPL 245 and the 2011 settlement of litigation pertaining to that block. See Note 31 to the “Consolidated Financial Statements”.
In August 2021, the Petroleum Industry Act (PIA) entered into effect, creating a new regulatory framework for the petroleum industry in Nigeria. The PIA introduces significant changes and we are actively engaged in the implementation process to ensure that these changes are implemented in a timely manner in our operations.
In 2022, our share of production, onshore and offshore, in Nigeria was 131 thousand boe/d, compared with 175 thousand boe/d in 2021. Security issues, sabotage and crude oil theft in the Niger Delta continued and remained significant challenges to our onshore operations in 2022, leading to a significant reduction of crude available for export from the Bonny terminal for several months. We will continue to monitor the situation closely and evaluate implications for the integrity of our infrastructure and the sustainability of our current operations. We continue to put the safety of our employees and contractors first.
In our Nigerian operations, we face various risks and adverse conditions which could have a significant adverse effect on our operational performance, earnings, cash flows and financial condition. See “Risk factors”.
There are limitations to the extent to which we can mitigate these risks. We liaise with host communities, and governmental and non-governmental organisations to help promote peaceful and safe operations for our people and local communities. We carry out regular portfolio assessments so we can maintain our long-term competitiveness in Nigeria. We support the Nigerian government’s efforts to improve the efficiency, functionality and domestic benefits of Nigeria’s oil and gas industry. We monitor legislative developments and the security situation. We continue to be transparent about how we manage and report spills, and how we respond to spills. We implement a maintenance strategy to support sustainable equipment reliability and have begun a multi-year programme to reduce routine flaring of associated gas. See “Our Journey to net zero”.
Rest of Africa
Shell also has interests in Algeria, Mauritania, Namibia, Sao Tome and Principe, South Africa and Tunisia.
In 2021, Shell announced plans to hand back to the government of Tunisia upstream assets associated with the Miskar and Hasdrubal concessions. In 2022, Shell handed back the Miskar concession upon its expiry. Discussions continue regarding the Hasdrubal hand-back.
Shales assets in Canada are now reported as part of the Integrated Gas segment instead of the Upstream segment.
See “Integrated Gas”.
The majority of our oil and gas interests in the USA comprise leases for federal offshore tracts in the deep waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Such leases usually have a fixed primary term and, once production is established, the leases remain in effect through continued production, subject to compliance with the terms and provisions of the leases (including appurtenant applicable laws and regulations).
In February 2023, we sold our 100% interest in Shell Onshore Ventures LLC, which holds a 51.8% membership interest in Aera Energy LLC to IKAV.
Shell holds one licence interest in the North Slope area of Alaska. In 2020, we received regulatory approval to combine our near-shore leases in West Harrison Bay into a single unit. Shell is currently seeking a co-owner to operate the unit.
Gulf of Mexico
Shell’s major production area in the USA is the Gulf of Mexico. We have a total of 327 active federal offshore leases where Shell is the operator and an additional 103 active federal offshore leases where Shell has a non-operated interest.
We are the operator of eight production hubs: Mars (Shell interests ranging from 33.7% to 100%), Olympus (Shell interests ranging from 71.5% to 100%), Auger (Shell interests ranging from 27.5% to 100%), Perdido (Shell interests ranging from 33.3% to 40%), Ursa (Shell interests ranging from 40% to 80%), Enchilada/Salsa (Shell interests ranging from 37.5% to 75%), Appomattox (Shell interest 79%) and Stones (Shell interest 100%). We also have the West Delta 143 processing facilities (Shell interest 71.5%).
We continue to produce from Coulomb (Shell interest 100%) which ties into the Na Kika platform (Shell interest 50%) operated by BP.
We continued exploration, development and abandonment activities in the Gulf of Mexico in 2022.
In March 2022, we began production at PowerNap (Shell interest 100%), a subsea tie-back to the Shell-operated Olympus tension leg platform (Shell interest 71.5%) in the Mars Corridor. PowerNap is expected to produce up to 20,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d) at peak rates.
Together with our partner, China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), we have reached a final investment decision (FID) on Rydberg (Shell interest 80%). It is a subsea tie-back to the Shell-operated Appomattox production hub (Shell interest 79%). The project is expected to start production in 2024 and produce up to 16,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d) at peak rates.
In June 2022, we acquired a 51% operated interest from Equinor in the North Platte deep-water development project. To reflect Shell’s entry to the project, Shell and Equinor have agreed to rename the North Platte opportunity to Sparta. Front-end engineering and design (FEED) has been well matured, and Shell is working closely with Equinor to progress the opportunity.
In February 2023, we began production at the Shell-operated Vito floating production facility (Shell interest 63.1%). Vito is expected to produce up to 100,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day (boe/d) at peak rates. We also made progress on the development of Whale (Shell interest 60%), which is a Shell-operated stand-alone host in the execution phase, expected to achieve first oil in late 2024.
The 2022 Atlantic hurricane season did not have a material impact on production at our Gulf of Mexico assets.
Vito – delivering value with a smaller, less costly design
Upstream seeks to deliver more value for shareholders by producing oil and gas more cost competitively, while striving for lower carbon emissions. Shell has more than 40 years of deep-water experience and we are constantly learning.
We planned a new Shell-operated deep-water platform for the Gulf of Mexico, Vito (Shell interest 63.1%), and then redesigned it to be simpler and more cost-efficient. The result: a platform a third of its original planned size at 70% less cost. The Vito team rose to the challenge and achieved first production in February 2023. Peak production is estimated at 100,000 barrels of oil equivalent per day.
Vito’s simplified hull design reduces operating expenses since it requires less maintenance. Its simplified mooring design requires less equipment, less capital investment and reduces safety exposures to operators. By limiting the topside scope to a weight less than 9,000 tonnes, this new design focused on being less complex to operate and less expensive to build.
Vito has not only delivered shareholder value but will also pave the way for other deep-water developments through innovation and simplification. Our Shell-operated Whale project (Shell interest 60%), also in the Gulf of Mexico and approved in 2021, will follow suit and replicate much of Vito’s smaller, more cost-effective design.
Rest of North America
Shell also has deep-water licences and one shallow-water licence in Mexico.
Shell has interests in the onshore Vaca Muerta Basin in the Neuquén Province. We are the operator of the Cruz de Lorena, Sierras Blancas and Coiron Amargo Sur Oeste (Shell interest 90% each), and Bajada de Añelo (Shell interest 50%) areas. We have non-operated interests in the areas of Rincon La Ceniza and La Escalonada (Shell interest 45% each), both operated by Total Austral S.A., and in the Bandurria Sur area (Shell interest 30%), operated by YPF S.A. We are the operator of a joint venture created for the construction of a pipeline which connects Sierras Blancas and the regional distribution network (Shell interest 60%).
In the north-western Argentina basin, we have a non-operated interest in the onshore Acambuco area (Shell interest 22.5%), operated by Pan American Energy.
In addition to the producing interests, we are the operator of two frontier exploration areas offshore Argentina (Shell interest 60% each) and we have a non-operated interest in an adjacent area (Shell interest 30%), operated by Equinor.
Shell’s operated assets in Brazil consist of the Bijupirá and Salema fields (Shell interest 80% each), which are being decommissioned; the producing BC-10 field (Shell interest 50%) in the Campos Basin; the Gato do Mato and the adjacent Sul de Gato do Mato areas in the Santos Basin (Shell interest 50%), subject to unitisation and with development options under evaluation. We also hold an interest in 13 exploration blocks in the Santos Basin (Shell interests ranging from 45% to 100%), 10 blocks in the Barreirinhas Basin (Shell interests ranging from 50% to 100%), four blocks in the Campos Basin (Shell interests ranging from 40% to 100%) and one block in the Potiguar Basin (Shell interest 100%).
Our non-operated portfolio consists of eight producing fields in the offshore Santos Basin: the Sapinhoá field (Shell interest 30%, operated by Petrobras and straddling the BM-S-9 and Entorno de Sapinhoá blocks already unitised); the Lapa field (Shell interest 30% in Block BM-S-9A, operated by TotalEnergies); the Berbigão and Sururu fields (Shell interest 25% in Block BM-S-11A, operated by Petrobras and subject to ongoing unitisation agreement discussions); the Atapu field (Shell interest 16.7% and straddling the BM-S-11A and Atapu PSC area already unitised); the Tupi field (Shell interest 23%, already unitised, in Block BM-S-11 and operated by Petrobras); the Iracema field (Shell interest 25% in Block BM-S-11 and operated by Petrobras); and the Mero field in the Libra PSC area (Shell interest 20%, unitisation with an adjoining area still subject to government approval and operated by Petrobras).
In addition to the producing assets, we hold interests in four non-operated exploration blocks, two in the Santos Basin (Shell interest of 20% and 40%, both operated by Petrobras) and two in the Potiguar Basin (Shell interest 40%, both operated by Petrobras).
The FPSO Guanabara production started in the Mero field in April 2022, offshore Santos Basin. Mero is expected to receive three more FPSOs and start producing from these between 2023 and 2025.
In April 2022, we signed the PSC related to the acquisition of 25% of Atapu Transfer of Rights area (acquired in the ANP bid round in 2021) and increasing Shell’s interest in the Atapu field from 4.3% to 16.7%.
In December 2022, Shell placed a successful bid in the ANP’s Permanent Offer PSC bid round for the acquisition of 40% of the Sudoeste de Sagitário block in the Santos Basin and is awaiting ratification.
Rest of South America
Shell also has interests in Suriname and Uruguay.
Trading and supply
Shell markets and trades crude oil from most of its Upstream operations.